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str_replace() replaces the first match; str_replace_all() replaces all matches.


str_replace(string, pattern, replacement)

str_replace_all(string, pattern, replacement)



Input vector. Either a character vector, or something coercible to one.


Pattern to look for.

The default interpretation is a regular expression, as described in stringi::about_search_regex. Control options with regex().

For str_replace_all() this can also be a named vector (c(pattern1 = replacement1)), in order to perform multiple replacements in each element of string.

Match a fixed string (i.e. by comparing only bytes), using fixed(). This is fast, but approximate. Generally, for matching human text, you'll want coll() which respects character matching rules for the specified locale.


The replacement value, usually a single string, but it can be the a vector the same length as string or pattern. References of the form \1, \2, etc will be replaced with the contents of the respective matched group (created by ()).

Alternatively, supply a function, which will be called once for each match (from right to left) and its return value will be used to replace the match.


A character vector the same length as string/pattern/replacement.

See also

str_replace_na() to turn missing values into "NA"; stri_replace() for the underlying implementation.


fruits <- c("one apple", "two pears", "three bananas")
str_replace(fruits, "[aeiou]", "-")
#> [1] "-ne apple"     "tw- pears"     "thr-e bananas"
str_replace_all(fruits, "[aeiou]", "-")
#> [1] "-n- -ppl-"     "tw- p--rs"     "thr-- b-n-n-s"
str_replace_all(fruits, "[aeiou]", toupper)
#> [1] "OnE ApplE"     "twO pEArs"     "thrEE bAnAnAs"
str_replace_all(fruits, "b", NA_character_)
#> [1] "one apple" "two pears" NA         

str_replace(fruits, "([aeiou])", "")
#> [1] "ne apple"     "tw pears"     "thre bananas"
str_replace(fruits, "([aeiou])", "\\1\\1")
#> [1] "oone apple"     "twoo pears"     "threee bananas"

# Note that str_replace() is vectorised along text, pattern, and replacement
str_replace(fruits, "[aeiou]", c("1", "2", "3"))
#> [1] "1ne apple"     "tw2 pears"     "thr3e bananas"
str_replace(fruits, c("a", "e", "i"), "-")
#> [1] "one -pple"     "two p-ars"     "three bananas"

# If you want to apply multiple patterns and replacements to the same
# string, pass a named vector to pattern.
fruits %>%
  str_c(collapse = "---") %>%
  str_replace_all(c("one" = "1", "two" = "2", "three" = "3"))
#> [1] "1 apple---2 pears---3 bananas"

# Use a function for more sophisticated replacement. This example
# replaces colour names with their hex values.
colours <- str_c("\\b", colors(), "\\b", collapse="|")
col2hex <- function(col) {
  rgb <- col2rgb(col)
  rgb(rgb["red", ], rgb["green", ], rgb["blue", ], max = 255)

x <- c(
  "Roses are red, violets are blue",
  "My favourite colour is green"
str_replace_all(x, colours, col2hex)
#> [1] "Roses are #FF0000, violets are #0000FF"
#> [2] "My favourite colour is #00FF00"